12.09.08

La depressione si può curare?

23:40:40, Aree di intervento: Disturbo dell'umore  

La depressione si può curare?

Si!

Quali sono le terapie utilizzate per la cura della depressione?

Le strategie terapeutiche riguardano la Terapia Farmacologica e la Terapia Cognitivo Comportamentale.

TERAPIA FARMACOLOGICA

E’ importante intraprendere un trattamento farmacologico soprattutto nelle forme più gravi di depressione, al fine di alleviare la profonda sofferenza del paziente, attenuare la compromissione sociale ed evitare la messa in atto di eventuali comportamenti anticonservativi.

LA TERAPIA COGNITIVA COMPORTAMENTALE

La terapia cognitivo comportamenatale della depressione consiste in una combinazione di tecniche sia cognitive che comportamentali e comprende:

Fase Psicoeducazionale

In una prima fase, il trattamento prevede un intervento psicoeducazionale, in cui il terapeuta spiega al paziente le cause, i sintomi e le conseguenze del disturbo di cui soffre. Questo è importante poichè spesso i pazienti e i loro familiari tendono a confondere la depressione con un atteggiamento dettato dalla pigrizia o un deficit di carattere.

Tecniche cognitive

Le tecniche cognitive consistono nell’identificare e successivamente modificare i pensieri negativi, gli errori di ragionamento, le convinzioni e le aspettative della persona: “non valgo nulla”, “sono incapace”, “è tutta colpa mia”, “gli altri sono migliori di me”, “è tutto così difficile”, “rovinerò tutto”,”non ce la farò mai”, “continuerò a sbagliare”, “è una catastrofe”,…

Intervento comportamentale

I pensieri negativi creano emozioni negative: ansia e tristezza, che portano la persona alla inattività, passività ad evitare le situazioni, delegando ad altri. La crescente inattività e l’isolamento sociale aumentano le rimuginazioni negative e la disforia. La persona rimane, così, intrappolata in un circolo vizioso che si autoalimenta. Ecco perché è importante che la persona depressa si dedichi ad attività piacevoli, svolga piccoli compiti dentro e fuori casa, per controbilanciare la perdita di motivazione, l’inattività e i pensieri negativi. Le attività verranno programmate e concordate durante le sedute.

Rilassamento e respirazione addominale

La persona depressa può avvertire ansia, tensione ed irritabilità. Il rilassamento muscolare progressivo e la respirazione lenta diaframmatica sono tecniche utili per gestire tali sintomi e per infondere calma e tranquilla.

Training assertivo

Attraverso il training assertivo, la persona depressa impara a non subire passivamente e a non aggredire gli altri, raggiungendo un equilibrio tra i suoi bisogni e quelli degli altri.

Tecniche di problem solving e decision making

Verranno insegnate tecniche o potenziate abilità per affrontare i problemi (problem solving) e per prendere decisioni (decision making) che permetteranno alla persona di essere più autonoma e prevenire le ricadute.

Attività sportiva

Moltissime ricerche in letteratura dimostrano l'efficacia dell'attività sportiva per migliorare l'umore e per scaricare emozioni negative. Presso lo studio, vi è una piccola palestra che permetterà al terapeuta e al paziente di allenarsi insieme.

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